Lipids and oxidation of carbohydrates provide all needed energy to the human body. Lipids are primarily energy reserves and carbohydrates are readily available source of energy. Lipids have more capacity to store energy than glycogen because human body has less capacity to store energy as glycogen. Proteins and carbohydrates can only yield four kcal of energy per gram while lipids store nine kcal of energy per gram. The forty kcal energy provides by free glucose and that is only use to maintain the functions of body for only few minutes. The liver and the muscles store remaining amount of glycogen after an overnight fast, that amount is almost about energy six hundred kcal. Without the inputs of new food, the reserves of glycogen can only maintain body functions only for one day. Reserves of substantial energy contains by protein in mostly muscles about 25, 000 kcal.
Human body function maintain by lipids reserves for 30-40 days with sufficient water but without food, because 100, 000 kcal of lipids energy reserves. A male of 154 pounds represent about 24 pounds of lipids or fats. Migrating birds and Hibernating animals have lipids as only sole source of energy. However, if we compare glycogen and lipids, Glycogen is less compact and less contain amount of energy per gram than lipids. If replace lipids with glycogen fat as the energy reserve then body weight decreases about 110 pounds approximately . Adipose tissue or depot fat are special kind of connective tissue throughout the body where lipids of fats stored in cells. Adipose tissue occupies 90% of the cell volume that consist of fat globules of triglycerides. A number of other functions provide by depot fats, liver, kidneys, heart, and spleen have structural support to help and protective cushion to prevent from injury. If body gets extreme temperature and heat loss occurs then fat insulates. The skin may be metabolizing in response to lower skin temperatures to generate heat. In bloods, lipids are not soluble. After reaction with water, lipids are transport as lipoproteins.
Generally, fatty acids transported in that form as well. Lipids supply in blood is constantly relative always and after a meal increases concentration immediately. The energy for cellular functions provide by liver cells because lipid absorbed by liver cells. To provide proper concentrations in blood of lipids is the responsibility of liver. Some lipids utilized to synthesize brain and nerve tissue. Lipids are convertible into adipose tissue when eventually excess of lipids occurs in blood. Lipids can synthesize form other foods in body, when the level of lipids become too low in blood.The food we eat are in shape of bigger molecules, that need to be broken in smaller forms before our cells can use them for building blocks for other molecules or either energy source because lipids, polysaccharides, and lipids make up of food. There are three stages to produce ATP after breaking down the food molecules; the first breakdown is therefore digestion and that is enzymatic, which occurs outside cells in intestine or within cells in organelle. There are large polymeric molecules in food that are broken down into subunits. Sugar contains polysaccharides, Amino acid contains proteins, and glycerol contains fats. Oxidations begin gradually after digestion. The mitochondrion is second stage that starts in cytosol and ends in the major energy converting organelle. Moreover, the third stage entirely confined to the mitochondrion (Edition).
Unsaturated fats and saturated fats both are need of human body to maintain health. Unsaturated fats should take as higher portion in daily routine because unsaturated fats help to prevent form cardiovascular disease and promote good cholesterol. Bad cholesterol promote by saturated fats. There are some features about saturated and unsaturated fats; saturated fats consist of single bond while unsaturated fats consist of at least one double bond. Less than ten percent of saturated fats should take daily and thirty percent of calories of unsaturated fats recommended for daily consumption. It is good to take unsaturated fats because it is high in antioxidants. However, saturated fats lead to heart disease. Unsaturated fats spoil quickly and saturated fats last long. Melting point of saturated fats are high but low for unsaturated. Rancidity of saturated fats is low and high of unsaturated .
Intrinsic proteins span the entire bilayer and extrinsic proteins sit on the side of the bilayer. Glycoprotein’s are involved in cell adhesion and cell recognition. Cholesterol reduces permeability and keeps the membrane stable.
Water and Minerals are digested molecules of food from the diet; Upper small intestine cavity absorbed them. There are different types of nutrients, we take in daily routine life such as carbohydrates, and bread is example of it. Proteins such as meat eggs are essential fats for body.
The role of non-fat diets on human body; this is not necessarily to take lower fats. You are taking lesser than twenty percent of calories in your daily life then you are putting your health on risk. Taking lower fats can leads to poor vitamin absorption, Vitamin A, D, E are not soluble in low fat diet body. It can also lead to depression. However, higher fats can also make problems for your health.
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